1st lecture of the HURT study guide

1.                    Approximately 3/4 of motorcycle accidents involved collisions with another vehicle, and 1/4 of these motorcycle accidents were single vehicle accidents involving the motorcycle colliding with the roadway or some fixed object.

2.                    Vehicle failure accounted for less than 3% of those where control was lost due to a puncture flat.

3.                    About 2/3 of the cases, with the typical error being a slide out and fall due to over braking or running wide on a curve due to excess speed or under-cornering

4.                    2/3 of those accidents, the driver of the other vehicle violated the motorcycle right-of-way and caused the accident 

5.                    The failure of motorists to detect and recognize motorcycles in traffic is the predominating cause of motorcycle accidents.

6.                    Intersections are the most likely place for the motorcycle accident, with the other vehicle violating the motorcycle right-of-way, and often violating traffic controls

7.                    Most motorcycle accidents involve a short trip

8.                    The view of the motorcycle or the other vehicle involved in the accident is limited by glare or obstructed by other vehicles in almost ½ of the multiple vehicle accidents.

9.                    Accident involvement is significantly reduced by the use of motorcycle headlamps (on in daylight) and the wearing of high visibility yellow, orange or bright red jackets.

10.                 Fuel system leaks and spills were present in 62% of the motorcycle accidents in the post-crash phase.

2nd lecture of the HURT study guide

1.                    limits of peripheral vision; more than 3/4 of all accident hazards are within 45deg of either side of straight ahead.

2.                    Vehicle defects related to accident causation are rare and likely to be due to deficient or defective maintenance

3.                    The motorcycle riders involved in accidents are essentially without training; 92% were self-taught or learned from family or friends. Motorcycle rider training experience reduces accident involvement and is related to reduced injuries in the event of accidents

4.                    More than 1/2 of the accident-involved motorcycle riders had less than 5 months experience on the accident motorcycle, although the total street riding experience was almost 3 years

5.                    Lack of attention to the driving task is a common factor for the motorcyclist in an accident

6.                    Almost half of the fatal accidents show alcohol involvement. Most riders would over brake and skid the rear wheel, and under brake the front wheel greatly reducing collision avoidance deceleration. The ability to counter steer and swerve was essentially absent

7.                    The typical motorcycle accident allows the motorcyclist just less than 2 seconds to complete all collision avoidance action.

3rd lecture of the HURT study guide

1.                   1/2 of the injuries to the somatic regions were to the ankle-foot, lower leg, knee, and thigh-upper leg

2.                   Crash bars are not an effective injury countermeasure; the reduction of injury to the ankle-foot is balanced by increase of injury to the thigh-upper leg, knee, and lower leg.

3.                    The use of heavy boots, jacket, gloves, etc., is effective in preventing or reducing abrasions and lacerations, which are frequent but rarely severe injuries.

4.                    Groin injuries were sustained by the motorcyclist in at least 13% of the accidents, which typified by multiple vehicle collision in frontal impact at higher than average speed.

5.                    Injury severity increases with speed, alcohol involvement and motorcycle size.

6.                    73% of the accident-involved motorcycle riders used no eye protection, and it is likely that the wind on the unprotected eyes contributed in impairment of vision that delayed hazard detection.

7.                    Voluntary safety helmet use by those accident-involved motorcycle riders was lowest for untrained, uneducated, young motorcycle riders on hot days and short trips.

8.                    The most deadly injuries to the accident victims were injuries to the chest and head.

9.                    The use of the safety helmet is the single critical factor in the prevention of reduction of head injury; the safety helmet that complies with FMVSS 218 is a significantly effective injury countermeasure.

10.                 FMVSS 218 provides a high level of protection in traffic accidents, and needs modification only to increase coverage at the back of the head and demonstrate impact protection of the front of full facial coverage helmets, and insure all adult sizes for traffic use are covered by the standard.

11.                 Helmeted riders and passengers showed significantly lower head and neck injury for all types of injury, at all levels of injury severity.

12.                 The increased coverage of the full facial coverage helmet increases protection, and significantly reduces face injuries.


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